Ground 12 - Human Factors Principles


The purpose of this lesson is to develop the pilot-in-training's understanding of how physiological factors affect piloting operations and to develop the pilot's single-pilot resource management skills.


You are planning the ultimate trip by airplane. You are planning to take your family from California to the Caribbean in your Piper Saratoga.  Your route will take you over mountainous terrain, and because its December and days are short, you plan for some of the legs to be after sunset once you are east of the Rockies.  While in the Caribbean you plan to scuba dive.

  • Study these chapters in the Jeppesen Private Pilot Textbook and answer the end-of-section reviews.
    • Chapter 10 - Applying Human Factors Principles
      • Section A: Aviation Physiology
      • Section B: Single-Pilot Resource Management
    • Chapter 11 - Flying Cross-Country
      • Section B: The Flight
  • Search for a NTSB accident report to bring with you for discussion with your instructor.  To narrow down the list of results, you might search for accidents in the same make and model that you are training in, a recent accident, an accident in California, etc.
  • Learn about benefits of the Aviation Safety Reporting System.
  • Sign up for a subscription to the ASRS newsletter Callback.
  • Update your navigation log for the flight from Cameron Park (O61) to Chico (KCIC) that you planned in Ground 11.  If you are not training in the Cessna 172, please update the navigation log using the performance charts for the Cessna 172.
Learning Objectives
Aviation Physiology
Desired Outcome Task/Knowledge
Explain Vision in Flight
Explain Night Vision
Explain Visual Illusions
Explain Disorientation
Explain Hypoxia
Explain Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Explain Hyperventilation
Explain Nitrogen Narcosis
Single-Pilot Resource Management
Desired Outcome Task/Knowledge
Explain Aeronautical Decision Making
Explain Hazardous Attitudes
Explain Task Management
Explain Situational Awareness
Explain CFIT Awareness
Explain Automation Management
Cross-Country Flight
Desired Outcome Task/Knowledge
Explain Tasks applicable to each phase of cross-country flight
Explain How to use the 5P Check during each phase of flight
Completion Standards
The lesson is complete when the pilot-in-training can:
  • meets the desired outcomes listed in the learning objectives table.
  • can explain how the ability to pilot an airplane is affected by aviation physiology.
  • can explain how safely manage cross-country flight using single-pilot resource management.