Private Pilot Airplane Ground 5 - Predicting Airplane Performance

Weight and Balance (1.0 hour)

• How much does fuel weigh?
• What is the empty weight of your airplane? Where did you obtain this?
• What is the maximum weight for your airplane? Where did you obtain this?
• Discuss the difference between ramp weight and takeoff weight.
• What is included in the empty weight of your airplane?
• What is a reference datum? Where is it located on your airplane?
• What are the risks of a CG that is forward of the fore limit?
• What are the risks of a CG that is aft of the fore limit?
• What are the risks of an overweight airplane?
• What are the benefits of a CG that is close, but not beyond the aft limit.
• As fuel is burned during the flight, how does the CG shift?
• How does weight affect the stall speed of the airplane?
• How does CG position affect the stall speed of the airplane?
• How does the CG position affect airplane stability?
• Have the pilot determine the weight and balance their training airplane using the computational method, to include the weights of the:
• Pilot
• Instructor
• As much fuel as possible without exceeding MTOW.
• Have the pilot determine the weight and balance using the table method for the airplane depicted in Figures 32 and 33 of the CKTS.
• Pilot - 200
• Front Seat Passenger - 180
• Back Seat Passenger - 150
• Back Seat Passenger - 180
• Main Wing Fuel Tanks – 40 gallons
• Aux Fuel Tanks – 10 gallons each
• Baggage – 110 pounds
• As the airplane is overloaded and the CG is too far aft, have the student determine what changes would be required to bring the airplane into the allowable weight and CG limits.
• Have the pilot determine the weight and balance using the graph methods for the airplane depicted in Figures 34 of the CKTS.  The empty weight is 1350 and empty weight moment is 51,500.
• Pilot - 200
• Front Seat Passenger - 180
• Back Seat Passenger - 180
• Main Wing Fuel Tanks – 44 gallons
• Baggage – 110 pounds
• Be sure that the pilot sees the note about engine oil.

Aircraft Performance (1.0 hour)

Atmospheric Effect on Aircraft Performance

• What is the international standard atmosphere (ISA)?
• What is the standard pressure lapse rate?
• What is the standard temperature lapse rate?
• How does condition of the atmosphere affect airplane performance?
• What is density altitude?
• How does density altitude affect aircraft performance?
• How much does a .01” of non-standard pressure effect density altitude?
• How much does a 1C° difference from standard temperature affect density altitude?
• How does humidity affect aircraft performance?
• How should you estimate the effect of humidity on takeoff performance?
• What is the difference between indicated airspeed, calibrated airspeed, true airspeed and groundspeed?
• What is the difference between indicated altitude, pressure altitude, density altitude, true altitude and absolute altitude?
• How do you convert a local altimeter settings (i.e. 30.12 in) to pressure altitude?
• What is the density altitude at South Lake Tahoe if the local altimeter setting is 29.55 in/Hg and the temperature is 30 C°.
• How will high density altitude atmospheric conditions affect engine starting?
• Introduce use of the Koch chart to estimate the effect of density altitude on takeoff distance and rate of climb.

Takeoff Performance

• How does a tailwind affect takeoff performance?
• How does runway gradient affect takeoff distances?
• How do flaps affect takeoff performance?
• How does pilot technique affect airplane performance?
• From where do you obtain the required pilot technique needed to achieve the performance
• How will weight affect takeoff performance?
• Calculate takeoff performance from KPAO

Climb Performance

• How will rate of climb differ between sea level/std atmosphere and high density altitude conditions?
• Calculate climb performance. Will the airplane be able to climb over the hills east of Fremont?

Cruise Performance

• Have the student determine the cruise true airspeed, groundspeed, time and fuel required using the forecast Winds and Temps aloft forecast and the flight computer.
• Have the student convert between IAS and TAS given the pressure altitude and forecast temp aloft.

Landing Performance

• How does a tailwind affect landing performance?
• How does runway gradient affect landing distances?
• How is takeoff and landing distances affected by a runway surface that is not hard, smooth and dry?
• How does weight affect landing performance?
• How do you calculate takeoff and landing performance with runways that have are not hard surface, or have a gradient?
• Have the student calculate landing and a subsequent takeoff at KTVL with high density altitude conditions (pressure 30.10 and temperature 85F)

Performance Risk Management

• When predicting performance, how should we use performance charts from a risk management perspective?
• What are the risk factors inherent in predicting performance?
• How do you make risk management decisions when considering airplane performance?
• How do you determine if the airplane’s actual performance is the same as the calculated performance?
• Takeoff
• Climb
• Cruise
• Landing
• If an airplane’s cruise performance is not as predicted, what do you need to do?
• Have the student calculate the takeoff and landing distances with a 5 knot headwind and 5 knot tailwind.  Help them recognize the dramatic differences in performance.
• Note: if training in the SportStar have the student use Figure 37 and 40 for these calculations which permit calculating density altitude.